This state, though small in size is known for its variety of minerals, rocks and fossils and there is enough material available in the state to enthuse collectors. The Grossular garnet which is found in the state and is the officially designated state gemstone and are some of the best quality of this type of garnet found in the world.
The grossular garnet, which technically speaking is a silicate mineral, is reddish-brown in color because of the existence of iron. Garnets from the Belvidere Mine at Eden Mills in Orleans County are some of the best of its kind which have ever been found. Besides grossular garnets, almandine garnets have also been found in the town of Chester in Windsor County.
The town of Fairfax in Franklin County has a few pegmatite deposits where the mineral albite is present. Within these albite deposits, beryl can be found. Another location where beryl can be found is at close to Lake Willoughby in Orleans County. The beryl found at this site is also sourced from the pegmatite rocks present at the location.
A variety of different quartz varieties can be found at some locations in Vermont. Blue quartz can be found in the rock formations dating back to the Precambrian era which are present close to the town of Bennington in the Bennington County. The smoky quartz variety can be found in the town of Lowell that is located in Orleans County. Both smoky quartz and clear quartz can also be found in the Rutland County at Mount Tabor.
The eastern coast of Lake Champlain is a location where jasper can be found. This site also has deposits of sand and gravel where jasper can be found in the form of glacial float brought down from Canada during the last ice age.
Although corundum is not found in very large quantities in Vermont, some of the localities where the mineral has been found are at the town of Shrewsbury in Rutland County, Granite Hill located in Cuttingsville County, around Ascutney Mountain in Windson County.
The mineral actinolite is found in metamorphic rock deposits in some places in Vermont. This green coloured mineral has been found in Carlton Quarries in Chester of Windsor County.
The white whale is a type of Beluga whale and it is the official state fossil. It was declared as the state fossil in 1993. The fossilized skeleton of the whale is displayed at the Perkins Geology Museum in the University of Vermont. The fossil is believed to be approximately 12,500 years old and was discovered in 1849 during construction of the rail line connecting Burlington and Rutland.
Marine fossils can also be found on the shores of Lake Champlain. Lake Champlain is known for being home to the world’s oldest fossilized coral reef.
There are an abundance of different types of marine fossils that can be found along the lake shore and in many areas of Vermont.